The project aimed to develop a scientifically sound and at the same time practical monitoring and reporting (M&R) concept for the International Climate Initiative (ICI) of the Federal Environment Minstry (BMUB). It started from an initial analysis of the current ICI approach and of the monitoring and reporting approaches applied in other climate finance instruments. An important element in the research process was a comprehensive process of engaging stakeholders and peer-reviewers, and conducting a test application of the concept developed. Main outputs were an exemplary manual "Project Guidance" for project proponents consisting of several thematic guidance documents, a set of templates, exemplary procedural guidance for the programme level, a proposal for an annual report and two specific background papers on monitoring, reporting and verification and lessons learned. The development of the monitoring and reporting concept had to take into account scientific aspects of monitoring climate-related and other results to be achieved in projects implemented in developing countries, the practicality of the approach, the consistency among a variety of documents and templates, procedural aspects relevant for the implementation of the concept on the project as well as on the programme level, and objectives and priorities for an annual reporting to the public. One challenge was the development of so called standard indicators for capacity improvement. The research project also identified remaining challenges (i.e. measuring long term impact beyond the project duration) and potential future research tasks.