The aim of this study is to explore whether carbon capture and storage (CCS) could be a viable technological option for significantly reducing CO2 emissions in emerging countries such as India, China and South Africa. These key countries have been chosen as case studies because all three, which hold vast coal reserves, are experiencing a rapidly growing demand for energy, currently based primarily on the use of coal. The study therefore focuses primarily on how to reduce CO2 emissions from coal-based electricity generation via CCS, supplemented by a rough analysis of emissions from industry.
The analysis is designed as an integrated assessment, and takes various perspectives. The main objective is to analyse how much CO2 can potentially be stored securely and for the long term in geological formations in the selected countries. This analysis is framed by an evaluation of coal reserves, levelised costs of electricity, ecological implications and stakeholder positions with regard to CCS in the respective countries. Finally, it draws conclusions on the future roles of technology cooperation and climate policy as well as research and development (R&D) in the field of CCS.
Based on currently available data and expertise in the selected countries, it can be concluded that several preconditions need to be fulfilled if CCS is to play a future role in reducing CO2 emissions in the analysed countries: Matching CO2 storage capacities based on reliable storage capacity assessments, accessible coal reserves, cost-effectiveness, ecological requirements and public support need to be fulfilled to establish conditions for a prominent development of CCS in the analysed countries. If the effect of each assessment dimension is ranked across five categories (from 1 = strong barrier to 5 = strong incentive for CCS), both storage capacity and cost could develop within the whole range with different framework conditions or assumptions. The other assessment dimensions score between 2 (weak barrier) and 4 (weak incentive) for CCS.