The AID-EE project developed recommendations for the systematic evaluation and design of policy instruments aiming at an increase in end-use energy efficiency. These guidelines were derived from 20 ex-post evaluations of policy instruments, in which a "theory-based" evaluation approach was applied. The study was co-ordinated by Ecofys (NL) on behalf of the European Commission. The Wuppertal Institute's work in the AID-EE project was supported by the State of North Rhine-Westphalia.
In the course of the 20 case studies it became clear that, in many cases, ex-post evaluations of policy instruments are hindered by a lack of clear policy targets and a lack of regular monitoring of relevant data. Moreover, interactions between policy instruments are hardly taken into account. In principle, a bundle of policy instruments is needed to overcome various barriers and obstacles, which different market actors face, towards an increase in energy efficiency. Therefore, from the beginning of any policy planning, decision-makers should build up a picture of the functioning and cause-impact relationships of a policy instrument within the relevant policy-mix ("Policy Theory").
The AID-EE project has shown that, in principle, the current EU targets for increasing energy efficiency can be reached by a comprehensive policy-mix and has proposed steps for reaching the targets and for the design of an appropriate policy-mix.