Limiting Climate Change, Combatting its ImpactsChange

Ending the fossil era and keeping climate change well below 2 degrees Celsius – preferably below 1.5 degrees – is possible, but it will require the engagement of many actors at all levels of government and the business community. Equitable, international climate policy and low-carbon lifestyles are fundamental to achieving these goals.

At the 2015 UN climate summit in Paris, the international community agreed to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius compared with pre-industrial levels and, ideally, even to keep warming below 1.5 degrees Celsius. Otherwise, we will face uncontrollable Earth system changes. The release of climate gases into the atmosphere must therefore be radically reduced, especially in countries with the highest emissions. There is no time to lose, because every tonne of emissions increases the concentration of the greenhouse gases responsible for climate change.

Furthermore, there is clear evidence that climate change is already taking its toll, and its effects have long since reached devastating proportions in some parts of the world. Germany has not been spared either, with billions of euros in damage already caused by the increase in extreme weather events. The catastrophic flooding in Rhineland-Palatinate and North Rhine-Westphalia in 2021 is just one of many examples. The latest report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) exposes the great disparity between the investments needed to protect against the impacts of climate change and the measures actually implemented to date. So there is urgent need for action on this front, too.

Climate change
Ending the fossil era and keeping climate change well below 2 or even 1.5 is possible.
Justice and Role Models

The only way to get climate change under control is through globally coordinated action. How then should an effective, international climate regime be designed? States, regions, and cities need to intensify their own efforts while also supporting the least developed countries and encouraging them to pursue post-carbon development. The Wuppertal Institute conducts research into the mechanisms and instruments that are best suited for this purpose and how the architecture of international climate negotiations should evolve.

Decarbonising the Economy

For industrialised countries and emerging economies alike, this means setting a course to bring greenhouse gas emissions down to near-zero levels by 2050 at the latest and to largely decarbonise energy systems. By that time – if not earlier – the era of coal, oil and natural gas as the foundation of the economy will need to have come to an end. The energy landscape will be very different by the middle of the century. But although the transition has already begun, it must pick up speed. The Wuppertal Institute has shown how systemic change can be achieved and how greenhouse-gas-neutral energy and industrial systems can be developed.

Climate Protection as a Winner

Ultimately, the necessary transition will only succeed if everyone contributes. Many cities, communities and companies have long since embarked on this journey by setting ambitious climate targets and working hard to achieve them. The Wuppertal Institute supports actors in Germany's federal states, municipalities and economy by developing concepts and strategies that go beyond simply describing ways of reducing emissions. This work ensures that these partners are on the right track and that businesses and the general public are engaged and will benefit from the transformation.

A holistic approach to climate change adaptation and mitigation

Germany’s Federal Government adopted a German Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change for the first time in 2008. Since 2021, adaptation legislation has been enacted at federal and state level. Although these efforts are now picking up pace, faster and more effective region-specific measures are needed at local level given the changes that are already apparent and those that are very likely to occur in the future.

Since the best way of adapting to climate change is still to prevent it altogether, effective measures that combine climate change mitigation and adaptation without conflicting with each other are advisable. With regard to urban development in particular, the synthesis of the two approaches should be considered holistically, as in this context, many challenges converge in a small geographic area.

In its research projects on climate change adaptation, the Wuppertal Institute not only investigates urban development and advice concerning integrated municipal-level concepts, but also looks at the issues from an international perspective, such as how nature-based solutions can guarantee future energy supplies. In addition, the researchers are shedding light on the relationships between health, climate change and associated adaptation measures.

Sustainable Lifestyles

Ultimately, effective climate protection is about more than new sources of energy and innovative technologies. From what and how much we consume to what the things we use are made of and how they are produced – all of our everyday decisions affect the climate. There are various things we need in order to adopt sustainable lifestyles, including climate-friendly products, transparency and, above all, clear frameworks for consumers and support from policymakers. These come under the Wuppertal Institute's areas of research.


Wolfgang Obergassel

Co-Head of Research Unit Global Climate Governance

Tel.: +49 202 2492-149

Constanze Schmidt

Scientific Advisor Strategic Research Field Development Adaptation

Tel.: +49 202 2492-367

Wolfgang Obergassel

Many of us will benefit from climate protection – because climate protection measures that are based on renewable energies and energy efficiency often come with added values. Examples of this include improved air quality, an easier access to energy, the creation of new jobs and business opportunities as well as less dependency on fuel imports and thus greater energy supply security.

Wolfgang Obergassel
Co-Head of Research Unit Global Climate Governance


Read more on our research on climate protection:


Here you find up-to-date information about research findings and activities in the field of climate protection.


Climate protection research takes place on a national and international level. In the following you find selected sample projects. A complete list is available here.

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