Almost 30 years after the Rio Summit and the adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the scientific community is certain that climate change is widespread, rapidly progressing and intensifying. In international climate negotiations, the "Just Transition" approach has been gaining importance for more than a decade. Social justice should be taken into account at an early stage in climate protection policy. The researchers outline the principles for integrating Just Transition into national climate plans (NDCs), with which the Parties aim to achieve the Paris climate goal. These principles are ambitious climate targets, social dialogue and stakeholder participation. The researchers focused in particular on the countries of the Global South. They describe the link between climate regimes, NDCs and Just Transition, and the role of civil society organisations and trade unions in the NDC preparation process. Three country case studies for Costa Rica, South Africa and Ukraine provide an insight into how Just Transition was integrated into the NDCs and which actors were involved. Finally, the study provides practical recommendations on how to improve the integration of Just Transition into NDCs and their preparation processes.
In summary, the researchers conclude that: