Focusing on the the newly-formed German states, the present study examines the question, what possibilities exist to offset the demographic and efficiency related declining demand for network heat supply and how the further expansion of district heating supply can be forced.
This study analyses the status and the changes of the district heating supply (general, network side and production side development) in the period 1995-2006.
Moreover, the development of district heating prices compared to rival energy sources and causes of the differing district heating prices in the Old and New Bundesländer will be identified. Due to the high share of CHP heating supply, the different allocation methods for evaluating CHP systems are analysed and their advantages and disadvantages for the formation of specific emission factors are discussed for the products electricity and heat. On the basis of data on heat energy demand, district heating capacity, development potential in district heating of the tertiary and the private household sector, the study estimates the CO2 reduction potential of district heating supply in the New Bundesländer until 2020. Based on the survey on the district heating market, the obstacles and instruments of preserving and strengthening the district heating supply in terms of raising the CO2 reduction potential will be discussed. The critical aspects with respect to the arrangement and effect of the various instruments are designated and suggested solutions submitted.
The principal contractor of the study was the Leipzig Institute for Energy. The Wuppertal Institute has - as a subcontractor - made a system comparison of heat supply options (including allocation comparison for CHP systems) and carried out a survey of selected district stakeholders.